Friuli-Venezia Giulia is a region of northeastern Italy, unique for its particular territory and for the history that has seen it over the centuries, border territory in contact with different cultural realities otherwise than the other regions. The territory is half flat (the plain to the south) and half hilly-mountainous (the northern alpine alps).
The upper part of the plain, called Magredi, is made up of permeable deposits of pebbles and gravel and has an arid appearance, only partially changed due to the use of modern irrigation techniques. The lower part, however, consists of waterproof floods where the streams from the Alps emerge, with a more lush landscape. The climate is sea-type in the exposed part of the sea, tempered in the hilly and alpine hillsides in the mountainous area.
Native and local varieties
- 8% Friulano ♦
- 4% Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso ♦
- 3% Glera Lunga ♦
- 2% Verduzzo Friulano ♦
- 2% Glera ♦
- 2% Ribolla Gialla ♦
- 1% Gewürtztraminer ♦
- 1% Malvasia Istriana ♦
- 1% Schioppettino ♦
- 1% Picolit ♦
- 25% Pinot Grigio ♦
- 15% Merlot ♦
- 7% Chardonnay ♦
- 7% Sauvignon ♦
- 7% Cabernet Franc ♦
- 3% Cabernet Sauvignon ♦
- 3% Pinot Bianco ♦
- 1% Pinot Nero ♦
- population: 1.215.973 (2018)
- area: 7.924 km²
- mountains 43% — hills 19% — plains 38%
- 2017: 22.920 hectares (stables)
- 2016: 22.920 hectares (stables)
- 2015: 22.920 hectares
- 2017: 1.639.058 hectoliters - 71,5 hectoliters/hectare (-12%)
- 2016: 1.856.412 hectoliters - 81,0 hectoliters/hectare (-2%)
- 2015: 1.886.561 hectoliters - 82,3 hectoliters/hectare
- DOCG and DOC wines 37% / IGT wines 37% / generic wines 26%
- red wines 23% / white wines 77%
Source: Istat 2018
Friuli-Venezia Giulia is a region that offers a wide variety of wines, on the one hand enhancing native and local grapes, such as Picolit, Friulano, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso and Verduzzo, on the other hand offering its own interpretation of famous international grape varieties. Viticulture has been concentrated in four large areas that trace the territorial orography and which, in some ways, highlight the local characteristics: the coastal areas, the internal plain, the eastern hills and the Karst.
The shores of the upper Adriatic line a long zone, around a hundred kilometers, between the border with Veneto, to the west, and the Karst, to the east. Here, almost stacked one after the other, we find some macro-designations that, more or less, share the same grapes: Friuli Latisana DOC, Friuli Annia DOC, Friuli Aquileia DOC and Friuli Isonzo DOC.
In the upper part of the plain, quite far from the sea, the landscape completely changes its appearance. Three major rivers - Meduna, Cellina and Tagliamento - are the main accomplices of this territorial transformation: the very high permeability of soils and the large expanses of stones, which amplify the temperature variations between day and night, make it possible to produce wines with a high organoleptic profile. The three denominations of reference are Lison DOCG, Lison-Pramaggiore DOC and Friuli Grave DOC. The first two are interregional and, in truth, they can be said to be more on Veneto than on Friuli, while the third is extended to the whole plain.
The beating heart of the region is represented by the eastern hills. In the province of Gorizia they are almost along the border with Slovenia and they are not very high, while in the province of Udine they soar more, almost wanting to protect from the cold winds coming from the nearby Alps. The relevant designations - 3 DOCG and 2 DOC - are widely known: Colli Orientali del Friuli DOCG is based on Picolit grapes, Ramandolo DOCG is based on Verduzzo Friulano, Rosazzo DOCG is based on Friulano; the macro-designations Friuli Colli Orientali DOC and Collio Goriziano DOC enhance a wide range of wines, both white and red.
The eastern end of the region, corresponding to the province of Trieste, is the final part of a large plateau that extends into Slovenia, the Karst. The territory has a dual peculiarity that reinforces the specificity of local wines: the soil and the wind. The soil (but above all the subsoil) is dominated by calcareous formations; if, on the one hand, they are the most responsible for the drought of the land, on the other hand they amplify the beneficial excursions between day and night. On the contrary, the wind is a constant presence, sometimes of considerable intensity, which guarantees clean air and great hygiene of the grapes. The reference name is Carso DOC (or Kras DOC in Slovenian).
- Carso ♦♦
- Collio Goriziano / Collio ♦♦
- Friuli Annia ♦♦♦
- Friuli Aquileia ♦♦♦
- Friuli Colli Orientali ♦♦
- Friuli Grave ♦♦♦
- Friuli Isonzo / Isonzo del Friuli ♦♦♦
- Friuli Latisana ♦♦♦
- Lison Pramaggiore ♦♦
- Prosecco ♦
- Alto Livenza ♦♦♦
- Delle Venezie ♦♦♦
- Venezia Giulia ♦♦♦